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Observer reactions to emotional victims of serious crimes: Stereotypes and expectancy violations

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dc.contributor.author Bosma, A. K., Mulder, E., Pemberton, A., & Vingerhoets, A. J.
dc.date.accessioned 2018-05-04T16:41:27Z
dc.date.available 2018-05-04T16:41:27Z
dc.date.issued 2018
dc.identifier.citation Bosma, A. K., Mulder, E., Pemberton, A., & Vingerhoets, A. J. (2018). Observer Reactions to Emotional Victims of Serious Crimes: Stereotypes and Expectancy Violations. Psychology, Crime & Law, (just-accepted), 1-45. en_US
dc.identifier.uri https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/1068316X.2018.1467910?needAccess=true
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11212/3824
dc.description.abstract Negative observer reactions towards victims may be related to people’s expectations of the characteristics and demeanor of an ideal victim. We examined how expressed emotion, victim sex, and type of victimization influence observers’ perceptions of victim credibility, victim character, and harm. Our hypothesis was that angry victims, male victims, and victims of sexual violence are perceived less positively than sad victims, female victims, and victims of physical violence. Additionally, we anticipated that expectancy violations following expressed agentic/high status, or passive/low-status emotions of the victim would lead to negative reactions. Participants (N = 335) read a written victim impact statement, by a male or female victim of a sexual or physical assault, in which anger or sadness was expressed. The results show that observers generally respond more negatively to male victims than to female victims, and to victims expressing anger rather than sadness. However, a two-way interaction between expressed emotion and type of crime revealed that expressed emotion only significantly influences character derogation and victim credibility in cases of physical violence. Finally, emotion expectancy violations based on ex-ante expectations lead to derogation and diminished credibility. The discussion focuses on how emotion expectancy violations seem intimately tied to stereotype-ridden features of victimization. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Psychology, Crime and Law en_US
dc.subject victimization en_US
dc.subject emotion en_US
dc.subject gender stereotypes en_US
dc.subject expectancy violation en_US
dc.subject observer reactions en_US
dc.title Observer reactions to emotional victims of serious crimes: Stereotypes and expectancy violations en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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