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Gender (in) differences in prevalence and incidence of traumatic experiences among orphaned and separated children living in five low- and middle-income countries

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dc.contributor.author Gray, C. L., Pence, B. W., Ostermann, J., Whetten, R. A., O'Donnell, K., Thielman, N. M., & Whetten, K.
dc.date.accessioned 2015-07-24T14:47:18Z
dc.date.available 2015-07-24T14:47:18Z
dc.date.issued 2015
dc.identifier.citation Gray, C. L., Pence, B. W., Ostermann, J., Whetten, R. A., O'Donnell, K., Thielman, N. M., & Whetten, K. (2015). Gender (in) differences in prevalence and incidence of traumatic experiences among orphaned and separated children living in five low-and middle-income countries. Global Mental Health, 2, e3. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4467827/pdf/nihms687843.pdf  
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11212/2367
dc.description.abstract Background: Approximately 153 million children worldwide are orphaned and vulnerable to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). Gender differences in PTEs in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are not well-understood, although support services and prevention programs often primarily involve girls. Methods: The Positive Outcomes for Orphans study used a two-stage, cluster-randomized sampling design to identify 2837 orphaned and separated children (OSC) in five LMIC in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We examined self-reported prevalence and incidence of several PTE types, including physical and sexual abuse, among 2235 children who were ≥10 years at baseline or follow-up, with a focus on gender comparisons. Results: Lifetime prevalence by age 13 of any PTE other than loss of a parent was similar in both boys [91.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) (85.0–95.5)] and girls [90.3% CI (84.2–94.1)] in institutional-based care, and boys [92.0% (CI 89.0–94.2)] and girls [92.9% CI (89.8–95.1)] in family-based care; annual incidence was similarly comparable between institution dwelling boys [23.6% CI (19.1, –29.3)] and girls [23.6% CI (18.6, –30.0)], as well as between family-dwelling boys [30.7% CI (28.0, –33.6)] and girls [29.3% CI (26.8,-32.0)]. Physical and sexual abuse had the highest overall annual incidence of any trauma type for institution-based OSC [12.9% CI (9.6–17.4)] and family-based OSC [19.4% CI (14.5–26.1)], although estimates in each setting were no different between genders. Conclusion: Prevalence and annual incidence of PTEs were high among OSC in general, but gender-specific estimates were comparable. Although support services and prevention programs are essential for female OSC, programs for male OSC are equally important. (Author Abstract en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Global Mental Health en_US
dc.subject child abuse en_US
dc.subject prevalence en_US
dc.subject research en_US
dc.subject International Resources en_US
dc.subject Ethiopia en_US
dc.subject Cambodia en_US
dc.subject India en_US
dc.subject Kenya en_US
dc.subject Tanzania en_US
dc.title Gender (in) differences in prevalence and incidence of traumatic experiences among orphaned and separated children living in five low- and middle-income countries en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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